Sunday, May 24, 2020

Hr421 Lit Review - 626 Words

Running Head: Employee Development Employee Development and the Park University In today’s competitive business world, it is important to have fully trained and well-versed employees, which can help make or break an organization. By having an employee development plan, or career path if you will, it allows employees to set career goals. This allows companies to ensure employees are fully capable of performing their assigned duties. The following chapter, Chapter 9, discussed methods of employee development. This chapter covered current trends associated with formal education, effective development strategies, as well as how to design a†¦show more content†¦This premise is so important that many companies now use web-based matching systems to help match mentors and protà ©gà ©s (Noe, 2010). Companies can also utilize software to also build development plans, set goals and track the mentors and protà ©gà ©s progress. Wyndham’s hotel chain found that their mentorship program participation tripled once they introduced the web-based mat ching system (Noe, 2010). Coaching, normally utilized at the managerial level, provides employees with resources that they might not normally have access to, such as mentors, courses and job experiences (Noe, 2010). It is imperative that the right coaches are selected for these developmental programs. The best coaches are those that are empathetic, supportive, practical, and self-confident while appearing to not know it all or want to tell others what to do (Noe, 2010). By providing coaching to new managers, it teaches them how to deal with a variety of situations in the workplace while maintaining professionalism and the corporate goals. In conclusion, while conducting this review, I found that this chapter offered many tools that can be utilized to develop an effective training plan. While any form of employee development is beneficial, mentoring and coaching have proven to be very effective. By offering these volunteer programs, it allows all parties involved, the mentor,

Monday, May 18, 2020

Police Brutality Should Not Be Swept Under The Rug

From the disturbing beating of Rodney King to the horrific death of Malice Green to the shooting of Michael Brown shows there is a consistent problem with police brutality and the exertion of force used. Police brutality seems to be a rising issue again with the occurrence of the Michael Brown shooting and the ‘Black Lives Matter’ movement making sure that any form of police brutality should not be swept under the rug. Action has been taken in some cities around the country for dealing with police brutality, such as police reform, which requires the retraining of hundreds of officers. There has also been talk and use of police body cameras that would record interactions between officers and the public to clear up any discrepancies in police/witness reports. To look at the effects and causation of police brutality we will be analyzing the media’s role, the sociological and psychological aspects of officers who administer the beating, and the timing of when these be atings/killings occurred. Police behavior plays a gigantic role in whether or not an officer will be willing to use excessive force against a suspect such as their background, training, morals, and composer in stressful situations. In Worden’s article he explains three theories about police behavior that comprise of existing research on police behavior and they’re training. These are sociological, psychological, and organizational theory. He explains sociological theory as the premise that police behavior isShow MoreRelatedPolice Brutality And The United States1286 Words   |  6 PagesPolice brutality continues to be one of the most serious and contentious violations of human rights in the United States. The unreasonable amount of force used by police officers prevails because of a lack of accountability. This makes it feasible for officers who do violate human rights to get off clean and recommit the violation. A sad fact is that police and/or public officials deny time after time any claims of human rights violations, claiming it was an abnormality, when they should be takingRead MoreAdjustment Case Study1417 Words   |  6 PagesAmerican and the other Caucasian, who come together to co-author a book on a subject that is headlining the news today; white police officers shooting or beating black boys. The second article is about the age difference of people who get the influenza vaccine and those that do not. Karen Bates is, the author of the article, â€Å"All American Boys’: A Young Adult Book about Police Beating and A Hard Choice, (2015).† In her article, she discusses the authors’ reason behind the publication of this bookRead MoreDamage in Cambodia1155 Words   |  5 Pagesmillion and 2.2 million. The United States of America should care about Cambodia because the rate of police brutality is increasing, utopian advocates control the people, and the government is defective. In Cambodia the police use extreme measures to control their people. Other than the obvious brutality from the Khmer Rouge the police officers that are left in Cambodia are keyed up towards aggression. The Khmer Rouge left an impression on the police that any problem needs to be dealt with using forceRead MoreGun Control And The United States988 Words   |  4 Pageswith a gun breaks into your school. BANG! Several of your classmates are killed before this man can be controlled. You survive, but live the rest of your life thinking back to that day and wonder if you could’ve done anything differently. What you should be asking yourself is how did this crazy man get a gun? Although this situation is hypothetical, it has occurred several times in the United States. This is due to the loose gun laws of the United States. The Second Amendment protects the right forRead MoreWhat Makes A Good Society?2042 Words   |  9 Pagesend police brutality, protesting racial injustice, and p romoting the restructuring of contemporary policing. The phrase Black Lives Matter has become a rallying cry for a new chapter in the long black freedom struggle. The Black Lives Matter movement originally began after George Zimmerman, a Hispanic male, was acquitted of the shooting of an unarmed black teen, Trayvon Martin in a Florida town in 2013. The movement has continued to grow in recent years after several controversial police- involvedRead MoreLetters Of Letters From Birmingham1489 Words   |  6 Pagesin particular was Commissioner of Public Safety Eugene â€Å"Bull† Connor s who was more about segregation that equal rights that’s members needed someone in high authority on their side. While the protester marched nonviolently the were attacked by police dogs and strong blasted of water holes similar to the ones use to put out fires. ( King, 2006) What deemed effective for Dr. King was civil disobedience during the march that he held. So you ask yourself, how can this be justified? When your causeRead MoreCatherine Mackinnon / Thomas Pogge Essay1817 Words   |  8 Pagessituations. MacKinnon believes that there should be not State Action Requirement, because it systematically ignores or disregards women’s suffering under the guise of not seeing gender (in order to indiscriminate), which results in crimes against women being seen as inevitable of the state of their nation or just things that happen because of their gender. The State Action Requirement can be useful in certain situations, but it is not of my belief that it should be mandatory for any human rights violationsRead MoreBlack Lives Matter : The Good, The Bad, And The Ugly Essay2487 Words   |  10 Pagessecond degree murder against seventeen year old Trayvon Martin. These emotions were the stepping stones of a highly significant movement, the Black Lives Ma tter movement. The Black Lives Matter movement is a response as well as a stance against police brutality against African Americans, which uses the tragic deaths of teenagers Trayvon Martin and Michael Brown as a head for its cause. Many people on social media know the black lives matter movement or refer to it #blacklivesmatter, especially on twitterRead MoreProfessional Sports In The United States Of America, Most1839 Words   |  8 Pagesmy part to look the other way. There are bodies in the street and people getting paid leave and getting away with murder† (Wikipedia). The act of kneeling or sitting down during the National Anthem was a way to call attention to the issues of police brutality and racial injustice in America. This protest was presented in two different and very polarizing ways by the media. The Kaepernick protest was largely influenced by the Black Lives Matter movement. Many supporters of the movement postedRead MoreHow Thanksgiving Is Fast Approaching Essay2360 Words   |  10 Pageswere created by the weapons they carry. The police used violent means to disperse the Protectors using tear gas, pepper spray and rubber bullets on them. Authorities arrested peaceful protesters and claimed their demonstration was a riot. Many videos of mass arrests and beatings on protestors have surfaced, yet they have continued to protest peacefully, relying only on nonviolent forms of protest. Since then, the public has criticized these extreme police interactions with protesters and protests began

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Comparisons of Creation Myths Essay - 2092 Words

Myths – as they are known to most of the world – give insight into the pasts of various countries and religions as the people saw them. They have been used to explain phenomenons in nature or describe the tales of courageous and important men and women throughout history. Creation myths in particular define how the Earth itself was created, along with the universe, heavens, hell, people, and creatures that exist today. Genesis of Christian mythology, for instance, tells the story of how the single deity God spoke and formed everything from day and night to man and woman. Various African creation myths, such as with the Yoruba, explain the creation of the Earth through at least a couple gods working together and all life†¦show more content†¦Professors correlate Buddhism and Christianity, Hinduism and Islam, Confucianism and Hinduism, and Greek and Roman myth, since all of those pairs seem to follow similar patterns or derive their ideals from one another, even down to the same gods but with different names. They compare the Abrahamic religions: Christianity, Islam and Judaism; the Dharmic or Indian religions, including Buddhism, Hinduism, Sikhism, and Jainism; and the Taoic religions, encompassing a large group of with Taoism, Confucianism, and Shinto. These comparisons give us a stronger understanding of previous civilizations and their beliefs, and shows the patterns people make as a culture as they develop over the centuries. It should be noted that all creation myths tend to possess similar themes, despite differing story lines. As noted before, there exists the basic ideas of chaos before creation, and gods to form life. But then various myths show that, once life has been created, the gods tend to retreat from the humanity they create, instead watching them from afar and using specifically chosen and often religious contacts to spread their words and commands. This deusShow MoreRelatedThe And Hopi And Zuni Tribes1741 Words   |  7 Pagesand Zuni tribes have creation stories that were passed from generation to generation. These stories claim that the world, despite being made before man, is meant to be ruled by and sustain mankind. Daniel Quinn’s novel, Ishmael, imagines its own creation myths to showcase how these stories work and the messages that they send. The Native American myths referenced in this paper and in Ishmael rank mankind as more important than the Earth through the timeframe of the creation stories, the way EarthRead MoreEssay on The Myth of Prometheus and Mary Shelleys Frankenstein1296 Words   |  6 PagesThe story of Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein is similar to that of a Greek tragedy and namely the myth of the titan, Prometheus. The characters as well as the plot are all similar between the two stories. Many have argued that Frankenstein is based on the Prometheus myth. I will attempt to show that there are many different parts of Frankenstein that are remarkably similar to the myth and draw a comparison between the two stories. The story of Prometheus is similar in many ways to that of FrankensteinRead MoreCreation Myths in the Abrahamic Religions1850 Words   |  7 Pagesbetween construction and creation is this: that a thing constructed can only be loved after it is constructed; but a thing created is loved before it exists† (qtd. in â€Å"Charles Dickens†). Although the creation stories of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam have some differences, the fact that the three Abrahamic religions all arose in the same Middle Eastern area in succession may have had an effect on not only each religion’s beliefs that can be found in their creation myth, but also on their extremeRead MoreComparing The Greek Mythology And The Cherokee1053 Words   |  5 Pagesother idea to it, as well. There are quite a few similarities between the Greeks stories of creation and the Cherokee. In both stories, before anything could be created, water had been everywhere, and surrounded in darkness. It was void-like and wild, primitive almost. Another similarity is both Grecian and Native Americans had the same idea of how humankind may have been born to inhabit their creations. The connection is they were created by the Gods, or God in the Cherokee’s case. To continueRead MoreCosmic Paper978 Words   |  4 PagesCosmic Creation Myths Across Taliah Daniels Hum/105 December 19, 2012 GLORIA PUGLIESE Cosmic Creation Myths Across Regarding Creation Although there are a great number of creation myths that are propagated by people of Chinese descent, virtually all of them acknowledge Pan Gu. Those that due generally state that Pan Gu was the first being and that all existence in the universe—especially the earth and the heavens—is comprised of this being. The general story of Pan Gu begins with hisRead MoreIndian And African Culture : Indian Culture931 Words   |  4 PagesAfrican culture both possess creation myths in their cultural background. Indian and African creation myths are world-different, in that they rely on completely different stories of how the universe and the Earth were created. However, a common trait shared among the two cultural creation myths is that of a divine creator, or set of creators. In the Indian culture, and that’s India, not native American indians, the Vedic religion tells the story of the creation myth of Rig Veda. Brown (1942) discussesRead MoreA Comparative Analysis of Hindu and Chinese Creation Myths1165 Words   |  5 PagesRegarding Creation Although there are a great number of creation myths that are propagated by people of Chinese descent, virtually all of them acknowledge Pan Gu. Those that due generally state that Pan Gu was the first being and that all existence in the universe especially the earth and the heavens is comprised of this being. The general story of Pan Gu begins with his conception inside of an egg. In that egg is the yin and the yang, the notion of duality which brings an eternal harmony andRead MoreBible vs. Mythology994 Words   |  4 Pages Bible vs. Myth There are many similarities and differences between Greek Mythology and The Bible. Whether it’s the creation of man and women, or the universe, stories have been told throughout time and some can be alike and others completely different. There are people that have gathered, translated and recorded all of these events for us now to learn about. Whether a person believes it is true or not is up to them but if a God is real how come the stories between these two different beliefsRead MoreSacred Destination Paper676 Words   |  3 PagesKnowledge of good and evil was the initial sin committed by Adam and Eve that became known later as the fall of man, Adam and Eve died spiritually immediately following eating the fruit of the tree of knowledge, their sin separated them from God. Similar Myths The city of Dilmun in the Sumerian mythological was described as a paradise garden where no one got sick or died; it was the garden of immortality. Boulay (1990) stated,â€Å"Dilmun was a land intimately associated with Sumer and Akkad, and just like MeluhhaRead MoreFrankensteins Origin: Assessing Thompsons Argument for the Creatures Literary Ancestors 1443 Words   |  6 PagesThe greatest modern stories often hail from ancient myths, and Mary Shelleys novel, Frankenstein, proves no exception to this claim. Replete with references to John Miltons Paradise Lost and the ancient Greek myth of Prometheus, the story of Frankenstein seems, in many ways, very much like the Creature himself—which is to say, cobbled together from various scraps of previously existing parts. Terry W. Thompson, however, argues convincingly that scholars continue to ignore one of Frankensteins

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Review on Kaplan and Zingales Research Paper About...

Review and Evaluation on ‘Do Investment-Cash Flow Sensitivities Provide Useful Measures of Financing Constraints’ by Kaplan and Zingales (QJE,1997) The research paper written by Steven N. Kaplan and Luigi Zingales as titled above which was published in year 1997 is to test the relationship linking investment-cash flow with financial constraint. In their research, they found that firm with a low level of financial constraint have a tendency to have a high investment-cash flow sensitivity. However, the findings contradict with the other research paper especially the FHP, 1988 paper. They used the same sample used in research done by Fazzari, Hubbard, and Petersen (FHP, 1988). But they only took the firms from Class 1 in FHP research†¦show more content†¦Table IV (Appendix 2) from the research paper is to test the possibility that a firm fits in one of the five categories. It shows that firms with greater debt to total capital, Q, and restriction of dividend, have high tendency to be categorised as financially constrained, whereas firms that owns greater cash flow, cash, dividends paid, retained earnings, and unused line of credit, have high tendency to be categorised as not financially constrained. The analysis shown by Kaplan and Zingales indicate an opposite results with the other research papers. This may be due to the classification of the firms status they used is based on direct observation, and the test that they used to assess their financing constraint indicators is unclear. In their thorough study of financial constraint correlation with investment-cash flow sensitivity, Kaplan and Zingales (QJE,1997) were able to show the more realistic findings. A more narrow scope of samples used in their research which only include group of firms which have the least dividend payout ratio and more possibility to show the relationship. The counterexample and conflict of findings between different literatures is not uncommon, this is due to different assumptions raised by the researcher as explained in the journal. For instance, the study on cash holdings and financial constraint by Kashyap,Show MoreRelatedThe Stock Market and Corporate Investment: A Test of Catering Theory13012 Words   |  53 PagesThe Stock Market and Corporate Investment: A Test of Catering Theory Christopher Polk London School of Economics Paola Sapienza Northwestern University, CEPR, and NBER We test a catering theory describing how stock market mispricing might inï ¬â€šuence individual ï ¬ rms’ investment decisions. We use discretionary accruals as our proxy for mispricing. We ï ¬ nd a positive relation between abnormal investment and discretionary accruals; that abnormal investment is more sensitive to discretionary accrualsRead MoreFinancial Reporting Quality: Red Flags and Accounting Warning Signs14135 Words   |  57 PagesFinancial Reporting Quality and Investment Efficiency Rodrigo S. Verdi The Wharton School University of Pennsylvania 1303 Steinberg Hall-Dietrich Hall Philadelphia, PA 19104 Email: Phone: (215) 898-7783 Abstract This paper studies the relation between financial reporting quality and investment efficiency on a sample of 49,543 firm-year observations between 1980 and 2003. Financial reporting quality has been posited to improve investment efficiency, but there has beenRead MoreThe Wacc Fallacy: the Real Eï ¬â‚¬ects of Using a Unique Discount Rate18805 Words   |  76 PagesKr ¨ ger u Geneva Finance Research Institute - Universit ´ de Gen`ve e e Augustin Landier Toulouse School of Economics David Thesmar HEC Paris and CEPR First Version: February 2011 This Version: September 2011 We greatly appreciate comments and suggestions by Malcolm Baker, Andor Gy ¨rgy, Owen Lamont, o Masahiro Watanabe, Jeï ¬â‚¬ Wurgler and seminar participants at the NBER Behavioral Finance Spring Meeting, the University of Mannheim, the 2011 European Financial Management Association meetingsRead MoreMerger and Acquisition: Current Issues115629 Words   |  463 Pages Mergers and Acquisitions Current Issues Edited by Greg N. Gregoriou and Karyn L. Neuhauser MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS Also edited by Greg N. Gregoriou ADVANCES IN RISK MANAGEMENT ASSET ALLOCATION AND INTERNATIONAL INVESTMENTS DIVERSIFICATION AND PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT OF MUTUAL FUNDS PERFORMANCE OF MUTUAL FUNDS Mergers and Acquisitions Current Issues Edited by GREG N. GREGORIOU and KARYN L. NEUHAUSER Selection and editorial matter  © Greg N. Gregoriou and Karyn L. Neuhauser

The Is A Byronic Hero For Modern Society Essay - 1017 Words

Analysis questions: 1. What were you trying to accomplish in this essay? What were you trying to get your audience to understand? †¢ My goal was to help my audience understand that they also can serve as â€Å"little heroes† in everyday life. No one has to have superpowers to be of assistance to someone in need. We each have qualities within us that move us to bring happiness to others. 2. What is the thesis? What does it help us understand about the stages of the essay? About the significance of the essay? †¢ He is revered as a beacon of hope for the horrific events in a terrorist society, an extraordinary symbol of the American dream, and a selfless fighter to protect Gotham. †¢ In this essay, my goal was to demonstrate a perfect example of dark life in Gothic times and how it applies to Batman as a Byronic hero for modern society. †¢ This thesis helps to develop the stages of my essay in this way. o Today, we live in tragic times where terrorism is on the rise all over the world. People are searching for leaders and heroes. They need someone who will â€Å"step up† and deal with the issues at hand. Batman did that for his citizens. We are no different. People want someone to reach out and help today. o Batman is an extraordinary symbol of the American dream. As Americans, we want freedom and peace. We want to accomplish goals for our families. We want out children to grow up and be able to pursue whatever career they want without threat. As American citizens, we look out forShow MoreRelatedGothic Literature : Modern Day Films And Television1445 Words   |  6 Pagesthat they faced on a regular basis. Gothic culture, therefore, changed its reflection and created a landmark from the 17th century until now with a different perspective. Gothic literature has influenced how Byronic heroes are portrayed in modern day films and television. In times past, the Byronic heroes such as Batman and Superman were depicted as innocent heroes that could do no harm. Yves Laberge notes that Batman â€Å"series was so popular and its main characters so iconic† (85). They were saviors forRead MoreThe Influence Of Dark Knight Returns On Cultural Consciousness, Politics, And The Nature Of The Comic Publishing Industry Essay1547 Words   |  7 PagesAnother way in which Batman displays himself as a Byronic hero is his function as a subversive character which refuses to submit to demonic forces. He tries to appear to be a man who is morally upright. However, Batman is unable to separate himself from the pain of his parents untimely death, which gives him a new identity as a mysterious masked crime fighter. In most books and films, he tries to put this tragic incident behind him without much success. As Peter J. Tomasi indicates , â€Å"instead weRead More Journal Analyzing the Byronic Hero and Lord Byron’s Writing Styles3002 Words   |  13 PagesA Journal Analyzing the Byronic Hero, Those who Closely Resemble the Hero, Byron’s Writing Styles and Literary Criticism (Journal entry 1, Defining the Byronic Hero) The Byronic Hero is a term derived from the poetic narrative, Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage, by Lord Byron. Though the idea of the Byronic Hero originated with the creation of Byron’s characters, Byron himself possessed the physical features associated with the Byronic Hero. These features include dark brooding eyesRead MoreLord Byron s Manfred, The Iconic Overbearing And Guilt Stricken Manfred1770 Words   |  8 Pagesin Lord Byron’s Manfred, the iconic overbearing and guilt-stricken Manfred has influenced the Byronic archetype to transcend beyond the gothic setting into today’s modern pop culture. Extending outside the gothic genre, which is characterized by the â€Å"macabre, mysterious, supernatural, and terrifying†, the haunting settings of looming, isolated landscapes, and dark forbidding symbolism, the Byronic hero archetype still exists in even the popular science fiction genre, with its themes rooted in dystopianRead MoreSummary Of The Tale 1386 Words   |  6 PagesBluebeard has various versions about its original inspirational story. Among different theories, the interpretation of Bluebeard’s origin as a women story particularly stands out as it not only sheds light on women’s living environment in traditional society in Middle Ages, but also provides a feminine perspective of the story’s significance. Despite the cautionary aspect, Bluebeard, told from mother to daughters through generations and generations, reflects practical consequences of marriage in realRead More The Power of Great Expectations and Jane Eyre Essay example2110 Words   |  9 Pages1900. The reform authors were Charlotte Brontà « and Charles Dickens. These two authors wrote Jane Eyre and Great Expectations, respectively. Through these novels, the authors have epitomized the Victorian era with gothic elements, Byronic heroes, importance of society, and round and flat characters. One of the key elements to every novel is the round characters, often the main character. A round character is one that changes throughout his or hers life. They grow as a person through characterRead MoreGeorge Gordon Byron : British Romantic Poet1866 Words   |  8 PagesByron seems to reflect upon nature of pleasure, and the fertility of the search for perfection in the course of a pilgrimage through Portugal, Spain, Albania, and Greece. In the was of Childe Harold’s enormous popularity, Byron was lionized in whig society. The handsome poet was swept the passionate and eccentric Lady Caroline Lamb, and the scandal of an elopement was barely prevented by his friend Hobhouse. Some of Byron’s works include poems such as Don Juan, Walk in Beauty, and Childe Harold’sRead MoreThe Gothic Villain Essay942 Words   |  4 PagesThe Gothic Villain Who is the Gothic Villain? Is he a villain/hero? Is he a dangerous lover? The villain is usually dark and handsome, though he might have some tell-tell sign that warns he is wicked. The villains ranged from dark priests to mysterious bandits. Some start out as heroes but turn into villains. The Gothic villain has several identifying characteristics. They are shifty, cunning and can mold their behavior to match the need of the circumstance. Villains will utilize intimidationRead MoreThe Formative Elements Of Classical Scholarship1691 Words   |  7 Pagesseen as more than just victims. However, yet again there is dissociation from the ideology. Just as Cambridge educated writers praising the uneducated agrarian class for their purity contains a dose of hypocrisy, a predominantly male group in a society where women were denied public higher education exploring the theme of female autonomy and power is bittersweet. The lack of authoritative female voices later emerged as a defining characteristic of professional classical scholarship. This helpedRead MoreScience May Be Interesting To Most, But Its Development1781 Words   |  8 PagesFrankenstein and the monster does not have a name. New developing science allows Victor to create this creature which, as we learn throughout the story, should never have been created. Mary Shelley uses multiple themes in Frankenstein to reflect society and ultimately define the genre of science fiction. Mary Shelley uses Frankenstein and its themes to reflect the real world around her and the problems within that world. For example, many thematic elements in the story contain parallels to racial

Cross-Cultural Dimensions in Negotiations free essay sample

One important aspect, and difference, relates to culture as negotiation style is to a great extent determined by culture. Clashing cultures can create misunderstandings and difficult challenges for negotiating parties, and may be even collapse of the process ultimately. Understanding and appreciating cultural impacts is essential in achieving successful intercultural communication and negotiation, despite differences. Parties involved must therefore obtain an understanding and respect of cultures present. Without reflection and consideration of this aspect the negotiation process and outcome could end in failure. Negotiation has been defined as a discussion between two or more parties aimed at resolving incoming goals (Pruitt amp; Carnevale, 1993). Negotiation however is an art practiced everyday in day-to-day social interact with others. Among the interaction and communication between parties during the process to resolve perceived incompatible goals, if parties which are in the process are not understanding very well each other’s values as well as culture ,misunderstanding or collapse may face the process. We will write a custom essay sample on Cross-Cultural Dimensions in Negotiations or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page This concerns all kinds of negotiations, domestic, national, or nternational negotiations, but it could be clearer in the International negotiations. The International community and the interdependent relationships amongst the nations is ever-growing, causing increased communication across cultures. Culture is the most important variable affecting international negotiations and the values and norms that are encompassed by culture can affect negotiations . Cultural values establish what members perceive as important, while cultural norms outline, and guides what is considered proper and improper behavior. Together, cultural values and norms influence how one perceives situations and how one reacts to the behavior of others. Cultural differences play a role in the outcomes of negotiations . Using American culture -as western culture – vs. Sudanese -as eastern culture, for comparison, with intentions to gain some insights into the dynamic world of cross-cultural negotiation. In a negotiation context it is common to define culture in terms of an identifiable group of people sharing the same values and beliefs (Lewicki, amp; Barry, Negotiation, International Edition, 5th edition, 2006) A common and potentially dangerous misconception held by some scholars , is that people from all over the world conceptualize in an identical manner. Certain conceptualizations are often considered universal and can lead to difficulties in different areas of international cooperation. Decision makers, who are working in a cross-cultural environment and making decisions- as well decision on negotiations- based only on their own culturally specific treatment of an issue, idea or situation can result in miscommunication and, ultimately, misguided outcomes. Decision makers from the west, when negotiating people from east, could consider the cultural differences, between those two societies. Culture is not genetically inherited, and cannot exist on its own, but it is always shared by members of a society (Hall 1976). Culture is passed from one generation to the other, it is changing all the time because each generation adds something of its own, before passing it on. In psychological research, culture is analyzed by grouping the people of the world into two groups: Individualism (I culture) and Collectivism (we culture). A culture is considered ‘Individualist’, if the members of the group are supposed to care for themselves and their immediate family only (Hofstede and Bond, 1984). This is a dominated culture in most Northern and Western European countries and North America (Inkeles, 1983; Triandis et al. , 1988). In contrast, Collectivist conceded that culture refers to societies in which people from birth onwards are integrated into strong, cohesive in-groups, which throughout a persons lifetime continue to protect them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty (Hofstede, 1991). This is culture mainly dominated in Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. (Ayyash-Abdo, 2001). Experiences with individualistic cultures such as the United States and collectivist’s cultures like Sudan or Russia show that in the United States, attainment of positive outcomes is emphasized and valued, whereas in Sudan, and Russia, avoiding negative outcome is emphasized and valued. In the United States, where the cultural value is individualistic, the realization of positive conclusions is stressed and respected. The Russians and Sudanese tend to have a more cautious approach because they do not want to lose. Therefore, collectivists Sudanese are more likely to cooperate in negotiations where they stand to lose. Individualists, like the Americans, are quite happy to leave a negotiation if it does not result in a profitable deal for them. It is very important to mention that in collectivistic cultures, people there- as we have in Sudan-value relationships and social networks far greater than in individualistic cultures like American do. Sudan is ideal example much for collectivism, Sudanese place relationships as an important aspect to business success and they are loyal to those they have formed a personal relationship with. They tend to deal with those whom they have developed a personal relationship with as opposed to those who can offer them a better deal, then they care very much about post negotiation or agreement period. Consequently, this is same we can mention, talking about the collectivistic Russians, Asians, Arabs and other Africans, we can find that they are more interested in finding out about you, your future’s plans and your future’s relationships. According the above mentioned, it appears that American negotiators should be well prepared to foster informal as well as formal relations with people from collectivistic societies. Knowing that collectivistic cultures grow and develop in group-win-win situations can lead to positive integrative decisions. As we have seen, collectivism has a group orientation; therefore, U. S. counterparts are slower to adapt to groups projects than Sudanese or even neighboring (to U. S) Mexicans. Mexicans just like Sudanese or other African or Asian collectivists, exhibit genuine team spirit and a willingness to help everyone in the group while promoting higher levels of inter-group communication.

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Psychology Depth Of Processing And The Self Refer Essay Example For Students

Psychology: Depth Of Processing And The Self Refer Essay ence EffectIntroductionThere have been many experiments done on depth of processing and the self reference effect. The Depth of Processing model of memory maintains that how deep something is encoded into a persons memory depends on using certain types of processing. This relates to the self reference effect because it is believed that people have the tendency to remember something better when they can relate it to themselves. People who can personally relate to something have the tendency to embed it deeper into their memory. Craik and Tulving did a series of experiments on the depth of processing model. They had participants use a series of processing methods to encode words at different levels; shallow, moderate, and deep. The subjects were shown a series of words and ask questions about the words that would provide a yes or no response. At the shallow level they were asked questions about whether or not the word was written in capital letters. At the moderate level of processing, the subject was asked questions as to whether or not two words rhymed. Finally, the subjects were asked about words in sentences and whether or not they fit. This was the deep level of processing. After participants had completed the task they were then given a surprise recognition test with the words that they were just asked questions on (target words) and then words that they have never seen before (distraction words). The results of the experiment showed that people remembered the words better that were at deeper level of processing (Craik and Tulving 1975). Although there was some criticisms about the above experiment, Craik and Tulving performed more experiments each time refining the D.O.P. model. There were thoughts that the structural tasks were easier and not as much time had to be spent on them therefore people did not have as long to look at those words and could not study them like the other tasks. Craik and Tulving then made the structural task take equally as long as the other tasks. The results remand the same as the previous experiments. Craik and Tulving also originally started with five tasks, but then narrowed it down to three to avoid a ceiling effect. The self-referent task was later added to model by Rogers. Palmere, Benton, Glover, and Ronning (1983) did a series of experiments continuing the research on the depth of processing model. They used paragraphs and within the paragraph there were sentences that were supported and then ones that were not. After the subjects were through reading all the paragraphs, they were then given a recognition test on the information in the paragraph. The results of this experiment showed that the subjects remember more information about the sentences which were supported with other information rather the ones that stand alone. This supports to the depth of processing because according to this experiment people remember information that had more detail which would require more thinking which would in turn encode the information at a much deeper level. The deeper information is encode people are more likely able to recall the information. Another experiment was done by Bower and Karlin (1974) which tested the depth of processing model on memory fue faces. They used college student pictures out yearbooks that were put onto slides. They then showed the slide to the subjects who were asked questions. The subjects were then ask to look at a serious of slides and asked whether or not that person had appeared in the original group of slides shown. The results of this experiment showed that when a person had a more detailed response about a person, the subject was more inclined to remember that person from the original group. This relates back to the Depth of Processing model because it showing by using more detail, information can be processed more deeply. .uca01399e6ba070ad88c06e747eff30a0 , .uca01399e6ba070ad88c06e747eff30a0 .postImageUrl , .uca01399e6ba070ad88c06e747eff30a0 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .uca01399e6ba070ad88c06e747eff30a0 , .uca01399e6ba070ad88c06e747eff30a0:hover , .uca01399e6ba070ad88c06e747eff30a0:visited , .uca01399e6ba070ad88c06e747eff30a0:active { border:0!important; } .uca01399e6ba070ad88c06e747eff30a0 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .uca01399e6ba070ad88c06e747eff30a0 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .uca01399e6ba070ad88c06e747eff30a0:active , .uca01399e6ba070ad88c06e747eff30a0:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .uca01399e6ba070ad88c06e747eff30a0 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .uca01399e6ba070ad88c06e747eff30a0 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .uca01399e6ba070ad88c06e747eff30a0 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .uca01399e6ba070ad88c06e747eff30a0 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .uca01399e6ba070ad88c06e747eff30a0:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .uca01399e6ba070ad88c06e747eff30a0 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .uca01399e6ba070ad88c06e747eff30a0 .uca01399e6ba070ad88c06e747eff30a0-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .uca01399e6ba070ad88c06e747eff30a0:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Pride and prejudice - jane aus EssayThis experiment as well supports the depth of processing model because it shows that when a person has to think more and respond to a much deeper question, they are more likely to remember. The shallower the depth at which the information is processed the more likely a person is to forget the information. When information is processed at a deeper level it requires more thought, therefore it is embedded into the memory. Research on the D.O.P. model led to the investigation of the self-referent effect, which focuses on people remembering information when they can relate the information to themselves. It is thought that information that can be encoded in relation to the self is the deepest form of processing. Rodgers, Kuiper, and Kirker (1977) define the self as being a lifetime of experiences and that there are schemas created for all that one has done to help keep information organized. When new information is experienced a person is more likely to remember it if the person has a similar schema already created because they can make associations. There is a problem with self-referent because the are people who have extreme schemas. There are people who will resist information that goes against their self only relating to things that really describes then or really does not. Then there are people out there that have no real opinion about themselves and they are just in the middle. For the most part pe ople are more likely to remember words that relate to them and their schema. Rogers, Kuiper and Kirker (1977) explored the idea of the self-referent effect. The participants were given a series of adjectives and asked questions about the given adjective. There were four different tasks used: structural, phonemic, semantic, and self-referent. The structural, phonemic, and semantic were used by Craik and Tulving (1975), while self-referent test as led Does the word describe you? The results of this experiment showed that people were more likely to remember the adjectives that they related to themselves rather than those related to any of the other forms of processing. This supports the idea that self-referent is related to the depth of processing model as representations of the deepest form of processing. The purpose of this experiment was to explore further the self-referent effect and its relation to the depth of processing model. Using the Rogers, Kuiper, and Kiker experiment the same general method was used. The participants were shown adjectives and asked a question, either structural, phonemic, semantic, or self-referent. A recall test was then given about the adjectives that had been presented. When the participant is given the recall test it is more likely they will recall phonemic information more than structural, the semantic information better than the phonemic, but the self-referent will be recall even greater than semantic. MethodsParticipantsThere were twenty college students selected from general psychology courses at a small mid western religious affiliated university. The people selected were both male and females around the same general age, college students. This experiment was completely voluntary, but the participants were offered extra credit if they participated. They were read on informed consent and were asked to sign it before participating in the actual experiment (appendix A informed consent form). ApparatusThe hard machinary used in the experiment was very limited. There was a t-scope used to present the slide s. The experiment used was modeled after Rogers experiment, so the information in this experiment is similar. The stimuli used were adjectives used from Meyers Briggs typed inventory. There were twenty positive adjective chosen and twenty negative adjectives (appendix B master list). The task adjectives were chosen from Websters Theasourous, Websters Rhyming Dictionary. They were then presented and agreed upon by a consensous. The attempt was made as well to have all the task words be adjectives. The adjectives were then used in various tasks. The complete wording on the tasks can be found in appendix C and the complete task can be found in Table 1. ProcedureThe particapants lead into the room by an experimentor and tested independently. The subjects were sat at a table in the middle of the room. The particapant was greeted and thanked for their particapation. First they were ask and sign the informed consent form and sign it. They were then explained the procedure of the experiment . They were asked to view a word and then asked to read a question pertaining to the word they just viewed on the screen. Then they were asked to respond to the word either yes or no only. The answer was recorded by another experimentor. The particapant was then flased ResultsThe experiment had two (response type) x four (task type) anova with repeated measures. The numbers are in proportion form because of the self referent effect. For the other three tasks, the yes and no responses were set prior to carrying out the experiment, whereas with self referent the yes or no outcome could not be set before hand because it was unknown how the particapant was going to respond. Therefore the reponses were converted into proportions to be able recognize main effect differences. The main effect differences were recognized if p was less .05. There was a significant main effect of response type on recall. F(1,19)=33.28: p=.0001. Items that received a yes response were remembered significantly b etter than items that received a no response. (Ms=.26 and .143 respectively). The least significant difference (LSD) test was used to find the differences between the means. Since the design was a within subject design the formula that was used was as follows:LSD= Tcrit Msw (2/n)Tcrit= T criticalMsw= Means withinN= number of particapatesThere is a significant main effect of task type on recall. F(3,57): p=.0001. Adjectives rated with self referent task were remembered significantly better than those rated with somantic task (Ms=.465 and .209 respectively). Further adjectives rated semantic task were significantly betterthan those rated with phonetic task (M= .087) or the structural task (M= .047). There was a significant response type by task type interaction F(3,57): p=.0001. For both yes and no response items adjectives rated with self referent task were remembered significantly better than items at a semantic task. Further, for both yes and no response items, semantic task adject ives were remebered better than phoneic and structural task. Differences were largfer for response items (see table 2). Psychology